Additional Test Technologies

Microscopy Tests:

Giemsa & Modified May-Grünwald stain:

These two smears are a general screening test used to detect blood-borne infections. The Modified May-Grünwald (MMG) stain was developed by Fry Laboratories to assist in the detection blood-borne infections. The stain is a combination of two unique stains to visualize red blood cells and any other foreign bodies. While the Giemsa staining procedure is a test that has long standing industry standard used to analyze blood with both a thick and thin blood preparation. The thin prep involves dragging a spot of blood across a slide using a second slide. The thick prep is simply a drop of blood that is ground into the slide and allowed to dry with no smearing. Both techniques are used in conjunction to determine if there are any abnormal findings in clinical sample. A photograph and report are generated based upon the technologist’s findings.

Advanced Stain (Fluorescent DNA stain):

This test is only available from Fry Laboratories, L.L.C. By using a highly specific fluorescent DNA dye, infections and blood-borne biofilm communities can be visualized. This screening test is used to identify structures that stain positive for DNA. We add our dye directly to a sample of blood and observe it under a fluorescent microscope where a photograph and report are then generated based upon the technologist’s findings. Additionally, if no abnormal results are found from the advanced stain procedure, an automatic reflex enrichment test (Organismal Enrichment) is performed to absolutely ensure we can detect any abnormalities. This protocol is to produce a higher yield of detectable infections and biofilm structures.

Serology Tests:

Serology testing is performed to examine a patient’s immune response (antibodies) to a specific pathogen. Disease causing organisms usually display antigens (foreign molecules presented on their surface) that are detected by the host’s immune system. Both IgG and IgM antibodies in an immunocompetent individual (typical normal immune response) will be produced at specific time points throughout the course of infection. IgM antibodies are the first type to respond to an infection. Their production peaks around the first week after initial infection. IgG antibodies peak between 3-4 weeks post infection. IgG antibodies usually become detectable within 3 weeks following infection and peaks between 2-6 months. Individuals being treated with antibiotics may not develop antibody titers or will develop low antibody levels. It is suggested that patients be off antibiotics for two weeks prior to testing; however, this is subject to clinical necessity. The ability to detect both types of antibodies allows a physician to determine the time course of an infection and whether said infection is active or not.

Indirect IFA (Immunofluorescence assay)
1. Antigen for specific infection is present on slide.
2. Allow binding of patient antibodies to antigen.
3. Allow conjugated fluorescently labeled anti-human antibodies to bind to patient antibodies bound onto the slide.
4. Visualize fluorescence using a fluorescent microscope.

Babesia IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Babesia microti (Hemolytic disease known as Babesiosis). This test detects the immune response to infections caused by the organism Babesia microti. For more information about Babesia infections, click here.

Ehrlichia chaffeensis IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis). This test detects the immune response to infections caused by the organism Ehrlichia chaffeensis. For more information about Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, click here.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis). This test detects the immune response to infections caused by the organism Anaplasma phagocytophilum. For more information about Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, click here.

Bartonella henselae / quintana IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana (Trench Fever and Cat-Scratch Disease). This test detects the immune response to infections caused by the organism Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. For more information about Trench Fever and Cat-Scratch Disease caused by Bartonella sp., click here.

Rickettsia rickettsii / typhi IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever) and Rickettsia typhi (Typhus Fever Group). This test detects the immune response to infections caused by the organism Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi. For more information about Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Typhus Fever Group caused by Rickettsia sp., click here.

Q-Fever (Coxiella burnetii) IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to phase I and II of Coxiella burnetii. Coxiella burnettii is an obligate intracellular parasite of eukaryotic cells. Serologic testing has been the primary test in clinical history for diagnosing this disease. Starting titer for this assay is 1:16 IgG and 1:16 IgM. Positive samples are reflexed for peak titer. Individuals being treated with antibiotics may not develop titers or will develop low antibody levels. It is suggested that patients be off antibiotics for two weeks prior to testing; however, this is subject to clinical necessity. For more information on Coxiella burnetii and Q-Fever, click here.

Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM:

This test uses immunofluorescent technology to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Primary infection by Toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by the production of antibodies reactive with the organism. Individuals being treated with antibiotics may not develop titers or will develop low antibody levels. Starting titer for this assay is 1:16 IgG and 1:8 IgM. Positive samples are reflexed for peak titer. For more information about Toxoplasma gondii infection, click here.

Lyme Western Blot IgG and IgM:

This test detects antibodies to various proteins to the Lyme spirochete – Borrelia burgdorferi. Borrelia proteins (also known as antigens) are attached to a thin strip of material (blot) and the patient’s serum containing antibodies are allowed to bind to the proteins. We test for both IgG and IgM antibodies and follow the Center for Disease control criteria for Lyme disease. A positive test is indicated with two or more IgM bands or 5 or more IgG protein bands. It has been reported that patients with Lyme disease produce antibodies of the IgM class during the first weeks after onset of EM (rash) but produce IgG antibodies more slowly. Strips that have 5 (or more) out of 10 significant bands for IgG and 2 out of 3 significant bands for IgM are considered positive for antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Individuals being treated with antibiotics may not develop titers or will develop low antibody levels. It is suggested that patients be off antibiotics for two weeks prior to testing; however, this is subject to clinical necessity. For more information about Lyme Disease and the organism that causes it, click here.

Molecular Diagnostics:

Pan-Bacterial Metagenomics Sequencing:

This test is designed to screen for the presence of any bacterial species in a patient-provided sample and identifies it or the nearest known relative by DNA sequencing analysis using our proprietary Next Generation Sequencing method and bioinformatics analysis. This test requires that the organisms be present in the sample provided and does not discriminate between viable or dead bacterial cells. Potential novel organisms are flagged and the nearest known relative is identified. Sample prep and processing does not require typical/traditional culture plate identification steps, as sequencing is a direct detection method. For more information about DNA sequencing, click here.

Pan-Eukaryotic Sequencing Sequencing:

This test is designed to screen for the presence of most medically relevant protozoa and eukaryotic microbial species in a patient-provided sample and identifies it or the nearest known relative by DNA sequencing analysis using our proprietary Next Generation Sequencing method and bioinformatics analysis. This test requires that the organisms be present in the sample provided and does not discriminate between viable or dead microbial cells. Potential novel organisms are flagged and the nearest known relative is identified. Sample preparation and processing does not require typical/traditional culture plate identification steps, as sequencing is a direct detection method. This assay cannot reliably detect Plasmodium (Malaria) or Trichomonas species, thus it should not be used if these organisms are suspected. Examples of validated organisms include, but are not limited to: Trypanosoma, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, Prototheca, Leishmania, Babesia, Cryptococcus, Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, Entamoeba, etc. For more information about DNA sequencing, click here.

Order Kits

Patients and physicians can order test kits by completing the kit order form.