|Babesia microti Seroreactivity|
Babesia microti detection by IFA analysis. Click image for larger version.
An emerging understanding of Babesia infections in man is represented by a long history of studies reaching back to the 1970’s and has progressed to a complex and detailed understanding of the evolution, epidemiology, and infectious processes of the parasite [1-15]. Babesia is the causative agent for Babesiosis, a hemolytic disease. Babesia is a microscopic protozoan parasite and is often confused with Borrelia, a bacteria. Scientific research has recently suggested that a reclassification of some Babesia spp. to Thileria spp. may be necessary, however for the sake of simplicity we continue to refer to this class of organisms as Babesia. Currently, there are over 100 known species of Babesia with few infecting humans at any reasonable rate, however unique cases of human infection of rare species and/or strains of Babesia have been observed. Babesia is transmitted by biting insects. In the United States Babesia microti is the most commonly observed species and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis (tick). Symptoms caused by the infection of Babesia range from entirely asymptomatic or flu-like symptoms to more severe effects such as headaches, lethargy, fevers, pain, and even heart, respiratory, or renal failure ultimately leading to death in untreated patients. Babesia divergens, another species of Babesia, is believed to result in more severe symptoms.
|Babesia spp. Tests|
Stained Smear MMG - Microscopy
Traditional Giemsa - Microscopy
Advanced Stains - Microscopy
B. microti IgG & IgM - Serology
Babesia spp. by PCR - Molecular Diagnostics
Fry Laboratories is committed to bringing all three cornerstones in diagnostics to detect, identify, and report the existence of Babesia in patient samples. Fry Laboratories, processes blood samples with both traditional and patented advanced microscopic parasite detection methods. Babesia can usually be identified by its characteristic ring or cruciform structures in or associated with red blood cells. We also can detect the presence of antibodies against Babesia microti in patient samples and discriminate if it is a concurrent or acute infection (usually presented by IgM antibodies) or is potentially a chronic or past infection (presented by IgG antibodies). Lastly, Fry Laboratories uses genus wide molecular diagnostics to identify an entire group of related organisms. If a presumptive positive sample is found it is then sequenced and the exact strain or species can be determined. This even applies to rare, zoonotic, or even brand new species of Babesia that may be missed by other molecular diagnostic methods. There are over 100 species of Babesia can your tests detect them all?
1. Hunfeld, K.P., A. Hildebrandt, and J.S. Gray, Babesiosis: recent insights into an ancient disease. Int J Parasitol, 2008. 38(11): p. 1219-37. 2. Walory, J., et al., [Prevalence of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti Borrelia burgdorferi in adults in North-Eastern Poland]. Pol Merkur Lekarski, 2005. 19(114): p. 754-7. 3. Telford, S.R., 3rd and H.K. Goethert, Emerging tick-borne infections: rediscovered and better characterized, or truly 'new' ? Parasitology, 2004. 129 Suppl: p. S301-27. 4. Sambri, V., et al., [Tick borne zoonosis: selected clinical and diagnostic aspects]. Parassitologia, 2004. 46(1-2): p. 109-13. 5. Mitrovic, S., et al., [Human babesiosis--recent discoveries]. Med Pregl, 2004. 57(7-8): p. 349-53. 6. Topolovec, J., et al., Serologically detected "new" tick-borne zoonoses in eastern Croatia. Croat Med J, 2003. 44(5): p. 626-9. 7. Kjemtrup, A.M., et al., Phylogenetic relationships of human and wildlife piroplasm isolates in the western United States inferred from the 18S nuclear small subunit RNA gene. Parasitology, 2000. 120 ( Pt 5): p. 487-93. 8. Dorman, S.E., et al., Fulminant babesiosis treated with clindamycin, quinine, and whole-blood exchange transfusion. Transfusion, 2000. 40(3): p. 375-80. 9. Kemper, C.A., Pulmonary disease in selected protozoal infections. Semin Respir Infect, 1997. 12(2): p. 113-21. 10. Quick, R.E., et al., Babesiosis in Washington State: a new species of Babesia? Ann Intern Med, 1993. 119(4): p. 284-90. 11. Steketee, R.W., et al., Babesiosis in Wisconsin. A new focus of disease transmission. Jama, 1985. 253(18): p. 2675-8. 12. Healy, G.R., Babesia infections in man. Hosp Pract, 1979. 14(6): p. 107-11, 115-6. 13. Wolf, R.E., et al., Intraerythrocytic parasitosis in humans with Entopolypoides species (family Babesiidae). Association with hepatic dysfunction and serum factors inhibiting lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin. Ann Intern Med, 1978. 88(6): p. 769-73. 14. Anderson, A.E., P.B. Cassaday, and G.R. Healy, Babesiosis in man. Sixth documented case. Am J Clin Pathol, 1974. 62(5): p. 612-8. 15. Ristic, M., et al., Babesia species isolated from a woman with clinical babesiosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1971. 20(1): p. 14-22.